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PHRASAL VERB CONSTRUCTIONS

(A useful way to categorise phrasal verbs)

Comment from Bibi:  When I first began teaching at Churchill House School, I discovered the following constructions & examples in Kernal Lessons Plus.  When I saw how helpful students found them, I created additional practice to complement the ideas in the book.

THE CONTENTS OF THIS PAGE

  • Language Note (Scroll to next box)

  • Type 1 Phrasal Verbs (Transfer Exercise)

  • Type 2 Phrasal Verbs (Matching Exercise)

  • Type 3 Phrasal Verbs (Transfer Exercise)

  • Type 4 Phrasal Verbs (Jigsaw Story & Matching)

LANGUAGE NOTE

Phrasal verbs are often wrongly described as VERB + PREPOSITION;  however, it should be VERB + PARTICLE.  In the case of Type 2 phrasal verbs, the 2nd one is called a preposition.

  • Phrasal verbs can sometimes seem logical, as if the particle emphasises the action. (The meal was eaten up/consumed quickly.)

  • Phrasal verbs usually appear to be totally illogical to a non-native speaker, yet to the native speaker, there is a vague explicable logic.  This is partially due to the fact that prepositions are governed by logic.  The logic of each nationality varies considerably;  that is why prepositions should never be translated as they will almost inevitably be wrong.  (The teacher found it hard to put up with/tolerate the boy's silly behaviour.)

How to identify a VERB + PREPOSITION

If the preposition can be changed, it is not a particle;  therefore the combination is not a phrasal verb. Compare the following:-

  • VERB + PREPOSITION:  The man looked over the gate (round the gate, under the gate, etc.)

  • PHRASAL VERB + PARTICLE:  The man looked over (=checked) the accounts 

TYPE 1 PHRASAL VERBS

  • verb + particle + object (noun)

  • verb + object (noun) + particle

  • verb + object pronoun + particle

INSTRUCTIONS

  • Type 1 phrasal verbs can initially be confused with Type 3, but they both work quite differently.  In type 1 phrasal verb, the pronoun cannot be used after the particle.
  • Look at the above constructions, all of which are possible with this type of phrasal verb. 
  • Look at the example, which demonstrates how the construction changes, depending upon whether a pronoun, or a noun is used.
  • Compile similar sentences, accordingly. 

EXAMPLE

Don't forget to ring up DAVID NELSON.

Yes.  I must ring DAVID NELSON up.  I'll ring HIM up now.

Turn off THE GAS. (turn off = switch off)

.......................................................................................................................
It's springtime.  Cut off YOUR MOUSTACHE. (cut off = remove)

.......................................................................................................................
You need to put off THE APPOINTMENT (put off = postpone)

.......................................................................................................................
Ring up THE LOCAL FIRE BRIGADE. (ring up = telephone)

.......................................................................................................................
The mechanic has put in a new spark plug. Start up THE CAR. (put in = fit)

.......................................................................................................................

TYPE 2 PHRASAL VERBS

verb + particle + preposition (with/without an object)

INSTRUCTIONS

  • Complete the following gaps, using verbs from the list.

COMPARE

  • PHRASAL VERB + PARTICLE + PREPOSITION:  She looked up to him (= respected)

  • VERB + 2 PREPOSITIONS:  She looked up to see the stars (down to see the dust on the floor, round to see who was coming into the room)

THE MISSING EQUIVALENT VERBS

  • apply for
  • became unfriendly with
  • belittled
  • broke
  • communicate with
  • confronted
  • could not do
  • respected
  • surrendered
  • throw away
  • tolerate
  • My friend Janet had always looked up to her boss. (..............................)
  • She always gave in to his demands.  (..............................) 
  • She said her old typewriter was not up to the job. (..............................)
  • He promised to get rid of her machine. (..............................)
  • One day he went back on his promise (..............................)
  • He suddenly said she would have to put up with it a bit longer. (..............................)
  • She argued, but could not get through to him. (..............................)
  • She stood up to him. (..............................)
  • He talked down to her.  (..............................)
  • That was how she fell out with him. (..............................) 
  • She had decided to put in for a transfer to another department.   (..............................)

The answer key

TYPE 3 PHRASAL VERBS

    • verb + particle + object (noun)

    • verb + particle + object (pronoun)

INSTRUCTIONS

  • Type 3 phrasal verb can initially be confused with Type 1, but they  both work quite differently.  In type 3 phrasal verb, the object and object pronoun must be used after the particle.
  • Look at the above constructions, all of which are possible with this type of phrasal verb. 
  • Look at the example, which demonstrates how the construction changes, depending upon whether a pronoun, or a noun is used.
  • Compile similar sentences, accordingly. 

EXAMPLE

  • I can't do without TOBACCO.      I can't do without IT.  

COMPARE

  • I can't do THIS JOB.                     I can't do IT.

I ran into MY FRIEND at the night-club.

........................................................................................................................

I won't stand for THIS NONSENSE.

........................................................................................................................

She takes after HER FATHER.

........................................................................................................................

The accountant is looking over THE FIGURES

........................................................................................................................

The answer key

TYPE 4 PHRASAL VERBS

verb + particle (no object)

INSTRUCTIONS

  • Decide the correct order of the story

  • Choose a phrasal verb to replace the verbs in capital letters

  • BLOW UP

  • BOIL OVER

  • BREAK DOWN

  • BREAK DOWN IN TEARS

  • BREAK OUT

  • BURN DOWN

  • DASH OFF

  • DIE DOWN

  • DRAW UP

  • GO OUT

  • PULL AWAY

  • PULL UP

  • PUT ON

  • RING UP

  • RUN OUT OF

  • START UP AGAIN

  • THROW DOWN

  • WENT UP (in smoke)

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

By that time, however, the house WAS GUTTED. (.............................)

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

Nevertheless, poor Mrs. Evans MAINTAINED (.............................) a brave face and did not even WEEP (.............................) at the end.

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

A small fire STARTED (.............................) in Mrs. Evan's house, because a small pan of milk OVERHEATED (.............................).

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

As the fire engine CAME TO A HALT (.............................), the flames gradually DIMINISHED (.............................).

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

The fire engine was hardly half way when it CEASED WORKING (.............................), because it LACKED (.............................) petrol.

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

She WITHDREW (.............................) the pan from the stove, but unfortunately, her apron IGNITED (.............................).

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

 They managed to RESTART (.............................) the engine and the fire engine eventually ARRIVED (.............................) outside her house.

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

She TELEPHONED (.............................) the local fire brigade, who DEPARTED (.............................) immediately.

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

She CHUCKED (.............................) it next to the cleaning fluid; to make matters worse, the chemical EXPLODED (.............................)

#- - - - - - - - - - - - -

The answer key

KEY TO EXERCISE 1

  • Turn off THE GAS.

  • Yes, I must turn THE GAS off.  I'll turn IT off now.

 

  • It's springtime.  Cut off YOUR MOUSTACHE.

  • Yes, I must cut off MY MOUSTACHE.  I'll cut IT off now.

 

  • You need to put off THE APPOINTMENT

  • Yes, I must put THE APPOINTMENT off.  I'll put IT now.

 

  • Ring up THE LOCAL FIRE BRIGADE.

  • Yes, I must ring THE LOCAL FIRE BRIGADE up.  I'll ring THEM up now.  (Note:  Collective nouns.  The Police and other organisations are counted as plural nouns, but are probably singular in your own language.)

 

  • The mechanic has put in a new spark plug. Start up THE CAR.

  • Yes, I must start THE CAR up.  I'll start IT up now.

KEY TO EXERCISE 2

(Type 2 Phrasal Verb)

MATCHING EXERCISE

  • My friend Janet had always looked up to her boss. (respected)
  • She always gave in to his demands.  (surrendered) 
  • She said her old typewriter was not up to the job. (could not do)
  • He promised to get rid of her machine. (throw away)
  • One day he went back on his promise (broke)
  • He suddenly said she would have to put up with it a bit longer. (tolerate)
  • She argued, but could not get through to him. (communicate with)
  • She stood up to him. (confronted)
  • He talked down to her.  (belittled)
  • That was how she fell out with him. (became unfriendly with) 
  • She had decided to put in for a transfer to another department.   (apply for)

KEY TO EXERCISE 3

(Type 3 Phrasal Verb)

  • I ran into HIM at the night-club.

  • I won't stand for IT.

  • She takes after HIM.

  • The accountant is looking over THEM

KEY TO EXERCISE 4

(Type 4 Phrasal Verb)

OUT OF ORDER STORY WITH PHRASAL VERBS

  • A small fire (BROKE OUT/STARTED) in Mrs. Evan's house, because a small pan of milk (BOILED OVER/OVERHEATED)

  • She (PULLED it AWAY/WITHDREW it) from the stove, but unfortunately, her apron (WENT UP in smoke/IGNITED).

  • She (THREW it DOWN/CHUCKED it) next to the cleaning fluid; to make matters worse, it (BLEW UP/EXPLODED).

  • She (RANG UP/TELEPHONED) the local fire brigade, who (DASHED OFF/DEPARTED) immediately.

  • The fire engine was barely half way when it (BROKE DOWN/CEASED WORKING), because it (HAD RUN OUT OF/ LACKED) petrol.

  • They managed to (START it UP AGAIN/RESTART it) and the fire engine eventually (DREW UP/ARRIVED) outside her house.

  • As the fire engine (PULLED UP/STOPPED), the flames (DIED DOWN/DIMINISHED) and (WENT OUT/DIED).

  • By that time, however, the house had (BURNT DOWN/BEEN  GUTTED).

  • Nevertheless, poor Mrs. Evans (PUT ON/MAINTAINED) a brave face  and did not even (BREAK DOWN in tears/WEEP) at the end.

 
 
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<>()<>
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