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USEFUL ENGLISH GRAMMAR TABLES + GAPPED PRACTICE

by Bibi Baxter

 
EXAMPLES OF IRREGULAR FORMS
ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
MUCH/MANY MORE THE MOST
FEW/LITTLE LESS THE LEAST
GOOD BETTER THE BEST
BAD WORSE THE WORST
ADJECTIVES

Regular forms requiring 'ER' or 'EST'

IMPORTANT GRAMMATICAL POINTS ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVE FORMS

 (........ER)

SUPERLATIVE FORMS

(THE .....EST)

Adjectives with one syllable only

THIN THINNER THE THINNEST

Adjectives ending in a single consonant which must be doubled

FAT FATTER THE FATTEST

Adjectives with one syllable, but ending in E

FIERCE FIERCER THE FIERCEST

Adjectives with one syllable + Y (Y changes to I)

FRIENDLY FRIENDLIER THE FRIENDLIEST
ADJECTIVES

Regular forms requiring 'MORE' or 'THE MOST'

  • Adjectives with more than one syllable

  • Adjectives ending with ED or ING

ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVE FORMS

 (MORE/LESS ........)

SUPERLATIVE FORMS

(THE MOST/THE LEAST .......)

DANGEROUS MORE/LESS DANGEROUS THE MOST/THE LEAST DANGEROUS
BORED 

(even though only one syllable is pronounced)

MORE/LESS BORED THE MOST/THE LEAST BORED
INTERESTING MORE/LESS INTERESTING THE MOST/THE LEAST INTERESTING
 
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES

1. The black dog is fat

2. The fat dog is in the road.

3. The black dog is fatter than the white dog

4.  The white dog is not as fat as the black dog

5. The black dog is friendlier than the white dog, but the brown dog is the fiercest.

6. The white dog is the thinnest and it is less dangerous than the brown dog.

7.a) Those books are very interesting and this one is the least interesting of them all.

7.b) Those books are not very interesting and this one is the most boring of them all.

IMPORTANT NOTES
  • Many similar lists do not contain THE;  however, I recommend that you learn it as part of the list, because it is necessary almost every time you use the superlative (See construction examples: 5, 6, 7a, 7b) 

  • Adjectives usually precede the noun (See construction example 2), or follow the verb TO BE (See construction example 1);  however, there are exceptions, especially in poetry and lyrics.  In The Beatles' Song:  'And I Love Her', the following two examples can be found: -

    • Bright are the stars that shine (normally:  The bright stars are shining or The stars are shining brightly)

    • Dark is the sky (The sky is dark)

  • Stating the comparative opposite:

    • Adjectives with one syllable:  use an adjective with the opposite meaning + ER (See construction example 6)

    • Adjectives with more than one syllable:  use MORE/LESS to indicate the opposite + the same adjective or an adjective with the opposite meaning.

  • Stating the superlative opposite:

    • Adjectives with one syllable:  use an adjective with the opposite meaning + EST (See construction example 6)

    • Adjectives with more than one syllable:  use THE MOST/THE LEAST to indicate the opposite. (See construction examples 7a and 7b)

 
PRACTICE

INSTRUCTIONS:  Use the above rules and examples to complete the following exercise.  Guess the adjectives if you can.

MAKE THIS EXERCISE EASIER:  Use the table of missing adjectives below

SOLDIER:  Hi, mate!  Can't wait to get home.  I haven't been home for six months.

SAILOR:     Well, I have been away from home much ....................... than that.

SOLDIER:   Where do you live?  I live in Scotland.

SAILOR:      Well, I live in Kent; it is a bit ....................... than Scotland.

SOLDIER:    Have you got a girlfriend or wife? 

SAILOR:       Yes, I have a girlfriend who wants to marry me, but she's ....................... than me.

SOLDIER:     Is she a lot ....................... than you?   

SAILOR:        Oh, yes.  10 centimetres.

SOLDIER:     Well my girlfriend is much ....................... than that.  In fact she is ....................... woman I know.

SAILOR:      My girlfriend's very ......................., too.  Have you got a photo of your one?   

SOLDIER:         Yes, here it is.   My girlfriend is ....................... girl in the world, but she is so ........................

SAILOR:        She reminds me of my girlfriend, but this woman has ....................... hair.  Let me look ....................... with my glasses.   Hmmmm!   This woman is definitely as ....................... as my girlfriend!   Just a minute!  She is MY girlfriend, not YOUR girlfriend!  You're ....................... scumbag I have ever met.  Get a girlfriend of your own!

SOLDIER:    Are you sure she's your girlfriend?  Is her hair as ....................... as your girlfriend's?  

SAILOR:   Well, no, but she must have dyed it.  It's usually much ....................... than that.   I have always preferred blondes. 

SOLDIER:   Well, there you are, then.  She can't be your girlfriend - her hair's the wrong colour.

SAILOR:    Maybe you're right, but she does look just like my Meg.  Sorry, mate.  Didn't mean to turn on you like that.  I'm not usually as ....................... as that.  Look, here's a photo of Meg.

SOLDIER:   Yes, she does resemble my Margaret a bit, but her hair is much ....................... and she also looks ....................... in the face.  (Thinks:  You must be ....................... than you look!)

SAILOR:  Yes.  You're right.  Well then, bye mate.  ....................... to have met you.

SOLDIER:  Bye, mate.  (Thinks:  You must be ....................... man I have ever met!)

Now check your answers

THE MISSING ADJECTIVES

(Some words are repeated)

ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

 

.......................

nice

.......................

lanky

curly

dark

.......................

.......................

......................

.......................

dark

.......................

pretty

touchy

tall

.......................

.......................

.......................

 

lighter

......................

more stupid

.......................

......................

.......................

.......................

blonder

chubbier.

......................

......................

longer

.......................

.......................

taller

warmer

curlier

closer

 

.......................

.......................

.......................

the lankiest

.......................

.......................

the meanest

.......................

.......................

the most gullible

.......................

.......................

the prettiest

.......................

.......................

.......................

.......................

.......................

Note:  
  • lanky (a negative adjective) = tall

  • chubby (a kinder adjective) = fat or fattish

THE ANSWER KEY TO THE EXERCISE FOR PRACTISING ADJECTIVES

INSTRUCTIONS:  Use the above rules and examples to complete the following exercise

SOLDIER:  Hi, mate!  Can't wait to get home.  I haven't been home for six months.

SAILOR:     Well, I have been away from home much longer than that.

SOLDIER:   Where do you live?  I live in Scotland.

SAILOR:      Well, I live in Kent; it is a bit warmer than Scotland.

SOLDIER:    Have you got a girlfriend or wife? 

SAILOR:       Yes, I have a girlfriend who wants to marry me, but she's taller than me.

SOLDIER:     Is she a lot taller than you?   

SAILOR:        Oh, yes.  10 centimetres.

SOLDIER:     Well my girlfriend is much taller than that.  In fact she is the lankiest woman I know.

SAILOR:      My girlfriend's very tall, too.  Have you got a photo of your one?   

SOLDIER:         Yes, here it is.   My girlfriend is 2-the prettiest girl in the world, but she is so lanky.

SAILOR:        She reminds me of my girlfriend, but this woman has curlier hair.  Let me look closer with my glasses.   Hmmmm!   This woman is definitely as pretty as my girlfriend!   Just a minute!  She is MY girlfriend, not YOUR girlfriend!  You're the meanest scumbag I have ever met.  Get a girlfriend of your own!

SOLDIER:    Are you sure she's your girlfriend?  Is her hair as dark as your girlfriend's?  

SAILOR:   Well, no, but she must have dyed it.  It's usually much blonder than that.   I have always preferred blondes. 

SOLDIER:   Well, there you are, then.  She can't be your girlfriend - her hair's the wrong colour.

SAILOR:    Maybe you're right, but she does look just like my Meg.  Sorry, mate.  Didn't mean to turn on you like that.  I'm not usually as touchy as that.  Look, here's a photo of Meg.

SOLDIER:   Yes, she does resemble my Margaret a bit, but her hair is much lighter and she also looks chubbier in the face.  (Thinks:  You must be more stupid than you look!)

SAILOR:  Yes.  You're right.  Well then, bye mate.  Nice to have met you.

SOLDIER:  Bye, mate.  (Thinks:  You must be the most gullible man I have ever met!)

(Note:  Meg is a nickname for someone named Margaret)

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